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Semaglutide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist, which means that it works by mimicking the actions of the hormone GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) in the body. GLP-1 is an incretin hormone that is released by the gut in response to food and promotes insulin secretion, glucose uptake and reduces glucagon secretion, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.

  • When semaglutide binds to the GLP-1 receptor, it mimics the effects of GLP-1 by promoting insulin secretion and reducing glucagon secretion. This helps to lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, semaglutide also slows down the emptying of the stomach and reduces appetite, which can lead to weight loss.
  • Semaglutide is administered as a once-weekly injection. It is used as an add-on therapy to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes who are not adequately controlled on metformin, a sulfonylurea or a thiazolidinedione. Additionally, it has been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials, including a reduction in the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE)
  • It is important to note that semaglutide has not been studied in combination with DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonist, insulin or pramlintide and it should not be used in combination with these medications.

Tirzepatide is a combination of a GLP-1 receptor agonist and a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. It is designed to improve glucose control and reduce body weight in people with type 2 diabetes.

  • Like Semaglutide, the GLP-1 receptor agonist component of Tirzepatide promotes insulin secretion and reduces glucagon secretion, leading to lower blood sugar levels.
  • The GLP-1 receptor antagonist component on the other hand works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes that break down GLP-1 and other incretin hormones. This helps to prolong the activity of the GLP-1 receptor agonist component, leading to a more sustained effect on blood sugar control.